CTC tumor organoids for developing personalized cancer treatment

The concept of personalized medicine lies in the ability to devise treatment approaches that are specific to the genetic profile of individual patients. However, predicting which drug will be the most effective based on the genetic makeup of a tumor remains a challenge. This is because for most DNA changes, it is not known how they contribute to the cancer process or how they can be targeted by drugs. Clinical trials or drug screening studies in humans are very expensive, time consuming and associated with ethical issues. Moreover genetic makeup of each individual is different so it is not possible to extrapolate findings from one patient to another. Therefore, there is an urgent need for development of in vitro tumor organoids that recapitulate the diversity of cancer which improves understanding disease and treatment response. Recent studies showed that the genetic changes within the tumor organoids well accords with mutational analyses of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and prostate cancer patients.